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What are the classifications of packaging?

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1. Single package – the package that directly holds goods. Such as: steel barrel, plastic barrel and tank. Net weight not more than 400kg, volume not more than 450L

2. Inner packaging – packaging in direct contact with materials; Packaging requiring outer packaging. (combined packaging)

3. Inner container – packaging in direct contact with materials; Containers requiring outer packaging. (composite packaging)

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4. Composite packaging – an integral packaging composed of an outer packaging and an inner container. ≤ 400kg, ≤ 450L

5. Combined packaging – one or more inner packaging placed in one outer packaging (detachable) ≤ 400kg. For example, plastic cans are placed in wooden cases

6. Outer packaging – external protection part of outer packaging and combined packaging and its adsorption, liner material

7. Reusable packaging – packaging for filling the same items. The performance indicators before each use must meet the standard

8. Repair packaging – replace the packaging of some accessories. For example: barrel cover, gasket

9, recycled packaging – packaging with changed form. For example, 6ha1 is changed to 6ha2

10. Rescue packaging – packaging for damaged packages

11. Medium bulk container – suitable for rigid and flexible removable packaging with mechanical loading and unloading volume of 250L ~ 3000l

12. Tank cabinet – tank container, road tank car and railway tank car. ≥450L 

extended data:

development prospect of packaging materials:

with the rapid development of China’s economy and the improvement of people’s quality of life, the demand for convenience foods such as microwave food, leisure food and frozen food will continue to increase, which will directly drive the demand for relevant food packaging, China’s food and packaging machinery industry will maintain positive growth for a long time to come

it is estimated that during the Eleventh Five Year Plan period, the total output value of China’s packaging industry is expected to reach 450 billion yuan, and maintain an average annual growth rate of 7%. From 2011 to 2015, the total output value is expected to exceed 600 billion yuan, with an average annual growth rate of about 16%

by product classification, China’s output of paper packaging products will reach 36 million tons, plastic packaging products 9.46 million tons, metal packaging products 4.91 million tons, glass packaging products 15.5 million tons and 1.2 million sets of packaging machinery by 2015. It is expected that in the future, circular economy will become the main development mode of the packaging industry, the recycling of packaging waste resources will be industrialized, green packaging materials will be vigorously developed and developed, and the basic packaging industry will also accelerate its development

reference source: Baidu Encyclopedia – packaging materials

reference source: Baidu Encyclopedia – packaging

each basic type of Java corresponds to a wrapper type. For example, the wrapper type of int is integer and the wrapper type of double is double. There are four main differences between basic types and packaging types

1 The wrapper type can be null, but the basic type cannot be

it enables the wrapper type to be applied to POJO, but the basic type cannot
POJO: a simple and irregular Java object with only attribute fields and setter and getter methods, as shown in the following example

class Writer {
private Integer age;
private String name;

public Integer getAge() {
return age;
}

public void setAge(Integer age) {
this.age = age;
}

public String getName() {
return name;
}

public void setName(String name) {
this. Name = name;
}
}
why does the attribute of POJO have to use packing type
Alibaba java development manual has detailed instructions
the query result of the database may be null. If the basic type is used, the exception will be thrown because it is necessary to unpack automatically (convert the packaging type to the basic type, for example, convert the integer object to the int value)

2. Packaging types can be used for generic types, while basic types cannot be

List & lt; int> list = new ArrayList<& gt; ();
//prompt syntax error, insert “” to complete
List & lt; Integer> list = new ArrayList<& gt; ();
3. Basic types are more efficient than wrapper types

basic types store specific values directly in the stack, while wrapper types store references in the heap

wrapper types take up more memory space than basic types. If there is no basic type, it is very cumbersome to pass a new packing type every time for frequently used data such as values
the values of two packaging types can be the same, but not equal
integer chenmo = new integer (10)
Integer wanger = new Integer(10);

System. out. println(chenmo == wanger); // false
System. out. println(chenmo.equals(wanger )); // True
when two packaging types use “= =” to judge, they judge whether the addresses they point to are equal. When the “= =” operator is applied to package type comparison, the result is likely to be inconsistent with the expected result

4. Automatic packing and automatic unpacking

with basic types and packaging types, they must be converted sometimes
the process of converting a basic type to a packing type is called boxing
on the contrary, the process of converting packaging type to basic type is called unpacking
before Java se5, developers need to unpack manually

integer chenmo = new integer (10)//Manual packing
int Wanger = chenmo intValue(); // Manual unpacking
in order to reduce the work of developers, Java se5 provides the function of automatic packing and unpacking

integer chenmo = 10//Auto packing
int Wanger = chenmo//Automatic unpacking

is equivalent to
= & gt

Integer chenmo = Integer. valueOf(10);
int wanger = chenmo. intValue();
in other words, automatic packing is through integer Valueof() completed; Automatic unpacking is through integer
note:

when automatic boxing is required, if the number is between – 128 and 127, the object in the cache will be used directly instead of re creating an object

the specific classification of packaging materials includes the following categories: 1. Paper packaging materials: packaging paper, honeycomb paper, paper bag paper, desiccant packaging paper, honeycomb paperboard, kraft paper, industrial paperboard and honeycomb paper core; 2. Plastic packaging materials: PP packaging belt, PET packaging belt, tear film, winding film, sealing tape, heat shrinkable film, plastic film and hollow plate; 3. Composite flexible packaging materials: flexible packaging, aluminized film, iron core wire, aluminum foil composite film, vacuum aluminized paper, composite film, composite paper, BOPP; Metal packaging materials: Tinplate aluminum foil, barrel hoop, steel strip, packaging buckle, Blister aluminum, PTP aluminum foil, aluminum plate and steel buckle; 4. Ceramic packaging materials: ceramic bottles, ceramic cylinders, ceramic jars, ceramic pots; 5. Glass packaging materials: glass bottles, glass cans and glass boxes; 6. Wood packaging materials: packaging made of wood products and artificial wood plates (such as plywood and fiberboard), such as wooden cases, barrels, wooden boxes, wooden splints, fiberboard cases, plywood cases and wooden pallets;

there are too many kinds of packaging bags, including PE bags, shielding bags, aluminum foil bags, isolation bags, vacuum bags, thermal insulation bags, tray covers, three-dimensional bags, bubble bags, foam, etc., which are covered by general professional packaging factories.

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