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Inaccurate voltage display of solar controller

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The voltage displayed by the controller is inaccurate. How to measure the real-time voltage of the battery during charging without taking off the charger?

the solar controller cannot be charged because it has entered the charging protection mode
charge discharge protection mode
1. Direct charge protection point voltage: direct charge is also called emergency charge, which belongs to rapid charging. Generally, the battery is charged with high current and relatively high voltage when the battery voltage is low. However, there is a control point, also known as protection point, which is the value in the above table. When the battery terminal voltage is higher than these protection values during charging, the direct charge should be stopped. The direct charge protection point voltage is generally also the “overcharge protection point” voltage. During charging, the battery terminal voltage cannot be higher than this protection point, otherwise overcharge will be caused and the battery will be damaged.
2. Equalizing control point voltage: after direct charging, the battery will generally be left standing by the charge discharge controller for a period of time to let its voltage fall naturally. When it falls to the “recovery voltage” value, it will enter the equalizing state. Why design even charging? That is, after the direct charging is completed, individual batteries may be “backward” (the terminal voltage is relatively low). In order to pull these individual molecules back and make the terminal voltage of all batteries uniform, it is necessary to recharge with high voltage and moderate current for a short time. It can be seen that the so-called equal charging is “balanced charging”. The equalizing time should not be too long, which is generally a few minutes to more than ten minutes. Setting the time too long is harmful. For a small system equipped with one or two batteries, even charging makes little sense. Generally, there are only two stages of street lamps
3. Floating charge control point voltage: generally, after the uniform charge is completed, the battery is also allowed to stand for a period of time to make its terminal voltage fall naturally. When it falls to the “maintenance voltage” point, it will enter the floating charge state. At present, PWM (i.e. pulse width modulation) mode is adopted, which is similar to “trickle charge” (i.e. small current charge). When the battery voltage is low, it will be charged a little, and when it is low, it will be charged a little, One by one to avoid the continuous rise of battery temperature, which is very good for the battery, because the internal temperature of the battery has a great impact on charge and discharge. In fact, PWM mode is mainly designed to stabilize the battery terminal voltage, and reduce the battery charging current by adjusting the pulse width. This is a very scientific charging management system. Specifically, in the later stage of charging, the remaining electrical capacity (SOC) of the battery & gt; At 80%, the charging current must be reduced to prevent excessive gas release (oxygen, hydrogen and acid gas) due to overcharge
4. Over discharge protection termination voltage: This is easy to understand. The battery discharge cannot be lower than this value, which is stipulated in the national standard. Although battery manufacturers also have their own protection parameters (enterprise standard or industrial standard), they will eventually move closer to the national standard. It should be noted that for the sake of safety, the over discharge protection point voltage of 12V battery is generally artificially added with 0.3V as temperature compensation or zero drift correction of control circuit. In this way, the over discharge protection point voltage of 12V battery is 11.10v, and the over discharge protection point voltage of 24V system is 22.20v. At present, many manufacturers of charge discharge controller adopt 22.2v (24V system) standard.

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